Sri Lanka

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Demokratik Republik Sosialis
Sri Lanka
ශ්රී ලංකා ප්රජාතාන්ත්රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය
இலங்கை சனநாயக சமத்துவ குடியரசு
Bendera Lambang
Anthem: Sri Lanka Matha
Ibu Sri Lanka

Modal Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte [1] [2]
6 ° 54'N 79 ° 54'E / 6,9 ° N 79,9 ° E / 6,9; 79,9
Kota terbesar Kolombo
Resmi bahasa Sinhala
Tamil
Demonim Sri Lanka
Pemerintah Kesatuan presiden
demokrasi sosialis republik
- Presiden Mahinda Rajapaksa
- Perdana Menteri DM Jayaratne
- Ketua Parlemen Chamal Rajapaksa
- Hakim Ketua Mohan Peiris [3]
Badan legislatif Parlemen
Kemerdekaan dari Britania Raya
- Rumah aturan 4 Februari 1948
- Republik 22 Mei 1972
- Saat Konstitusi 7 September 1978
Daerah
- Total 65.610 km 2 ( 122nd )
25.332 sq mi
- Air (%) 4.4
Populasi
- 2.012 sensus 20.277.597 [4] ( 57 )
- Kepadatan 323/km 2 ( 40 )
836.6/sq mi
PDB ( PPP ) 2.012 perkiraan
- Total $ 127.000.000.000 [5] ( 64 )
- Per kapita $ 6.135 [5] ( 111 )
PDB (nominal) 2.011 perkiraan
- Total 64914000000 $ [5] ( 68 )
- Per kapita $ 3.139 [5] ( 123rd )
Gini (2010) 36 [6] (menengah
HDI (2011) Meningkatkan 0.691 [7] (menengah / 97th )
Mata uang Sri Lanka rupee ( LKR )
Wilayah waktu SLST ( UTC +5:30)
Format tanggal hh / bb / tttt ( AD )
Drive pada kiri
Memanggil kode 94
ISO 3166 kode LK
Internet TLD . Lk , ලංකා. , . இலங்கை

Sri Lanka ( Mendengarkan i / ʃ r i ː l ɑ ː ŋ k ə / , / s r i ː l ɑ ː ŋ k ə / , atau / s r i ː l æ ŋ k ə / , [8] [9] Sinhala : ශ්රී ලංකාව, Sri Lamka, Tamil : இலங்கை , ilaṅkai) resmi Sosialis Republik Demokratik Sri Lanka, adalah sebuah negara pulau di bagian utara Samudera Hindia di lepas pantai selatan benua India di Asia Selatan . Diketahui sampai tahun 1972 sebagai Ceylon (pron.: / s ɨ l ɒ n / , / s l ɒ n / , atau / s i ː l ɒ n / ), Sri Lanka memiliki perbatasan maritim dengan India di barat laut dan Maladewa ke barat daya.

Sejarah Sri Lanka didokumentasikan mencakup tiga ribu tahun. [10] lokasi geografis Its dan pelabuhan yang mendalam membuatnya kepentingan strategis besar dari zaman kuno Jalan Sutra [11] hingga Perang Dunia II. [12] Sri Lanka adalah negara yang beragam rumah bagi banyak agama, etnis dan bahasa. [13] Para orang Sinhala yang mayoritas, walaupun ada banyak etnis minoritas , termasuk Tamil , Muslim Moor, Kaula , kafir , Melayu dan asli Vedda orang . [14] Sri Lanka memiliki kaya Buddha warisan, dan dikenal pertama Buddha tulisan yang disusun di pulau. [15] sejarah negara itu telah dirusak oleh tiga puluh tahun perang saudara yang tegas tapi kontroversial [16] berakhir dengan kemenangan militer pada tahun 2009. [17]

Sri Lanka adalah republik dan negara kesatuan diatur oleh sistem presidensial . The ibukota Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte , dinamai oleh presiden setelah dirinya , adalah pinggiran kota terbesar, Kolombo . Produsen penting teh, kopi, batu permata , kelapa , karet dan asli kayu manis , [18] Sri Lanka telah disebut The setetes air mata dari India karena bentuk dan lokasi dan dikenal sebagai "The Pearl of Samudera Hindia" karena keindahan alamnya. Hal ini juga dikenal sebagai "The bangsa tersenyum orang". [19] Pulau berisi hutan tropis , dan lanskap beragam dengan tinggi keanekaragaman hayati .

Negara ini telah memiliki sejarah panjang keterlibatan internasional, menjadi anggota pendiri SAARC dan anggota PBB , Commonwealth of Nations , G77 dan Gerakan Non-Blok .

Isi

Etimologi

Pada jaman dahulu, Sri Lanka dikenal wisatawan dengan berbagai nama. Dikenal di India sebagai Lanka atau Sinhala, geografi Yunani kuno menyebutnya Taprobane [20] pron:. / t ə p r ɒ b ə n i ː / dan Arab menyebutnya sebagai Serendib (asal "kata serendipity "). [21] Ceilão adalah nama yang diberikan ke Sri Lanka oleh Portugis ketika mereka tiba pada tahun 1505, [22] yang diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris sebagai Ceylon. [23] Sebagai Inggris koloni mahkota , pulau itu dikenal sebagai Ceylon kemerdekaan, dan dicapai sebagai Dominion of Ceylon pada tahun 1948.

Di Sinhala negara ini dikenal sebagai ශ්රී ලංකා Śrī Lamka, IPA: [ʃɾi ː Lanka ː] , dan pulau itu sendiri sebagai ලංකාව laṃkāva, IPA: [Lanka ː ʋə] [. rujukan? ] Di Tamil mereka berdua இலங்கை ilaṅkai, IPA: [ilaŋɡai] . Nama ini berasal dari bahasa Sansekerta श्री लंका Śrī (terhormat) dan Lanka (pulau), [24] namanya dalam epos India kuno Mahabharata dan Ramayana . Pada tahun 1972, nama diubah menjadi "Republik gratis, dan Sovereign Independen Sri Lanka". Pada tahun 1978 itu diubah menjadi " Sosialis Demokratik Republik Sri Lanka ". [25] Nama Ceylon masih digunakan dalam nama-nama sejumlah organisasi, pada tahun 2011, pemerintah Sri Lanka mengumumkan rencana untuk mengubah nama semua orang yang menjadi tanggung jawabnya. [26]

Sejarah

Pra-sejarah Sri Lanka

Sejarah pra-Sri Lanka tanggal kembali lebih dari 125 ribu tahun Sebelum Hadir awal (BP) dan bahkan mungkin sebagai sebagai 500.000 BP. [27] Era membentang Palaeolithic , Mesolithic dan awal usia Besi . Di antara Paleolitik ( Homo erectus ) pemukiman manusia ditemukan di Sri Lanka, Pahiyangala (dinamai Cina wisatawan biksu Fa Hsien- ), yang tanggal kembali ke 37.000 BP, [28] Batadombalena (28.500 BP) [29] dan Belilena (12.000 BP ) adalah yang paling penting. Sisa-sisa Man ​​Balangoda , yang secara anatomis modern yang manusia , ditemukan di dalam gua ini, [30] menunjukkan bahwa mereka mungkin telah terlibat dalam bidang pertanian dan terus anjing domestik untuk mengemudi permainan. [31]

Frescos di Sigiriya benteng batu di Matale District , abad ke-5

Salah satu referensi tertulis pertama untuk pulau ini ditemukan di India epik Ramayana , yang menyediakan rincian dari sebuah kerajaan bernama Lanka yang telah dibuat oleh pematung ilahi Vishwakarma , untuk Kubera , penguasa kekayaan. [32] Dikatakan bahwa Kubera digulingkan oleh saudara tiri nya setan Rahwana , Kaisar kuat yang membangun mitos mesin terbang bernama Dandu Monara . [33] Kota modern Wariyapola digambarkan sebagai bandara Rahwana. [34]

Awal penduduk Sri Lanka yang mungkin nenek moyang orang Vedda , [35] sebuah komunitas adat yang tinggal di zaman modern Sri Lanka, yang jumlahnya sekitar 2.500. Irlandia sejarawan James Emerson Tennent berteori Galle , sebuah kota selatan di Sri Lanka, adalah pelabuhan kuno Tarsis , dari mana Raja Salomo dikatakan telah ditarik gading , burung-burung merak dan barang berharga lainnya.

Kuno Sri Lanka

Avukana patung Buddha , patung Buddha yang berdiri 12m milik pemerintahan Dhatusena , abad ke-5

Menurut Mahavamsa , sebuah kronik ditulis dalam Pali bahasa, periode kuno Sri Lanka dimulai pada 543 SM dengan pendaratan Vijaya , seorang raja semi-legendaris yang berlayar 860 mil laut pada delapan kapal ke Sri Lanka dengan 700 pengikut dari barat daya pantai apa yang sekarang wilayah Rarh dari Bengal Barat . [36] Ia mendirikan Kerajaan Tambapanni , dekat modern Mannar . Vijaya adalah yang pertama dari sekitar 189 asli raja dari Sri Lanka bahwa sejarah seperti Dipavamsa , Mahavamsa, Chulavamsa , dan Rajavaliya mendeskripsikan (lihat Daftar Sri Lanka raja ). Sri Lanka sejarah dinasti membentang jangka waktu 2.359 tahun, dari 543 SM sampai 1815, sampai tanah menjadi bagian dari Kerajaan Inggris . [37]

The Sigiriya benteng batu.

Kerajaan Sri Lanka pindah ke Anuradhapura pada 380 SM, pada masa pemerintahan Pandukabhaya . Setelah itu, Anuradhapura menjabat sebagai ibukota negara selama hampir 1400 tahun. [38] Kuno Sri Lanka unggul dalam berbagai konstruksi seperti tank , Dagobas dan istana. [39] Masyarakat mengalami transformasi besar pada masa pemerintahan Devanampiya Tissa , dengan kedatangan agama Buddha dari India. Pada 250 SM, [40] bhikkhu Mahinda ( Sansekerta : महेन्द्र, Mahendra ), putra Maurya Kaisar Ashoka tiba di Mihintale , membawa pesan dari Buddhisme. [41] misi-Nya menang atas raja, yang memeluk iman dan disebarkan itu seluruh penduduk Sinhala . [42] The kerajaan penerus Sri Lanka akan mempertahankan sejumlah besar sekolah Buddhis dan biara-biara, dan mendukung penyebaran agama Buddha ke negara-negara lain di Asia Tenggara juga. Sri Lanka Bikkhus belajar di India yang terkenal Buddhis Universitas Nalanda kuno yang dihancurkan oleh Mohammed Kilji. Besar kemungkinan bahwa banyak tulisan suci dari Nalanda yang diawetkan dalam banyak biara Sri Lanka. [43] Pada 245 SM, bhikkhuni Sangamitta tiba dengan Sri Jaya Maha Bodhi pohon, yang dianggap sebagai anak pohon dari sejarah pohon Bodhi di mana Gautama Buddha menjadi tercerahkan. [44] Hal ini dianggap pohon ditanam manusia tertua (dengan catatan sejarah terus menerus) di dunia. ( Bodhivamsa ) [45]

Sri Lanka mengalami invasi asing pertama masa pemerintahan Suratissa , yang dikalahkan oleh dua pedagang kuda bernama Sena dan guttika dari India Selatan . [42] Invasi berikutnya datang langsung di 205 SM oleh Chola raja bernama Elara , yang menggulingkan Asela dan memerintah negara itu selama 44 tahun. Dutugemunu , putra tertua dari daerah selatan sub-raja, Kavan Tissa , mengalahkan Elara dalam Pertempuran Vijithapura . Ia membangun Ruwanwelisaya , stupa kedua di Sri Lanka kuno, dan Lovamahapaya . [46] Selama dua setengah abad eksistensi, Kerajaan Sri Lanka diserang setidaknya delapan kali oleh tetangga dinasti Asia Selatan seperti Chola , Pandya , Chera , dan Pallava . Penyerbu ini semuanya kemudian didorong kembali. [47] Ada juga adalah serangan oleh kerajaan Kalingga (modern Orissa ) dan dari Semenanjung Melayu juga. Kala Wewa dan Avukana patung Buddha yang dibangun pada masa pemerintahan Dhatusena . [48]

Claudius Ptolemy 's peta dari Ceylon, abad ke-1 Masehi dalam publikasi 1535.

Sri Lanka merupakan negara Asia pertama yang memiliki penguasa perempuan, Ratu Anula yang berkuasa selama 47-42 SM. [49] Sri Lanka raja mencapai beberapa prestasi yang luar biasa seperti konstruksi Sigiriya , yang disebut "Benteng in the Sky". Ini dibangun pada masa pemerintahan Kashyapa I . Sigiriya adalah benteng batu yang dikelilingi oleh jaringan luas kebun, waduk, dan struktur lainnya. Istana abad ke-5 juga terkenal karena lukisan di atas batu permukaan. [48] Hal ini telah dinyatakan oleh UNESCO sebagai 8 Keajaiban dunia . [50] [51] Di antara konstruksi lainnya, besar waduk , penting untuk konservasi air dalam iklim yang bergantian musim hujan dengan waktu kering, dan rumit saluran air , beberapa dengan kemiringan yang halus dikalibrasi sebagai satu inci ke satu mil, yang paling menonjol. Biso Kotuwa, konstruksi yang aneh di dalam bendungan , adalah sebuah keajaiban teknologi yang tepat didasarkan pada matematika , memungkinkan air mengalir di luar bendungan menjaga tekanan untuk minimum. [52] Kuno Sri Lanka adalah negara pertama di dunia yang telah membentuk rumah sakit khusus, di Mihintale pada abad ke-4. [53] Itu juga eksportir terkemuka dari kayu manis di dunia kuno, dan telah mempertahankan hubungan dekat dengan peradaban Eropa termasuk Kekaisaran Romawi . Misalnya, Raja Bhatikabhaya (22 SM-7) telah mengirimkan utusan ke Roma yang dibawa kembali merah karang yang digunakan untuk membuat perhiasan netlike rumit untuk Ruwanwelisaya . Selain Sri Lanka penari laki-laki menyaksikan pembunuhan Caligula. Ketika Ratu Cleopatra dikirim Cesarian anaknya bersembunyi ia menuju ke Sri Lanka. i [54] [55] Bhikkhuni Devasāra dan sepuluh bhikkhuni sepenuhnya ditahbiskan lainnya dari Sri Lanka pergi ke China dan mendirikan Sasana bhikkhuni ada di AD 429. [56]

Medieval Sri Lanka

Sebuah patung Buddha di ibu kota kuno Polonnaruwa , abad ke-12

Periode abad pertengahan Sri Lanka dimulai dengan jatuhnya Anuradhapura . Dalam AD 993, invasi Chola kaisar Rajaraja I memaksa maka Sri Lanka penguasa Mahinda V melarikan diri ke bagian selatan negara itu. [57] Mengambil keuntungan dari situasi ini, Rajendra I , putra Rajaraja I, melancarkan invasi besar pada tahun 1017. Mahinda V ditangkap dan dibawa ke India, dan Cholas dipecat kota Anuradhapura . [57] Selanjutnya, mereka memindahkan ibukota ke Polonnaruwa . [58] Hal ini menandai akhir dari dua rumah besar dinasti Sri Lanka kuno, Moriya dan Lambakanna. Setelah kampanye tujuh belas tahun yang panjang, Vijayabahu I berhasil mengusir keluar Chola dari Sri Lanka pada 1070, menyatukan kembali negara itu untuk pertama kalinya dalam lebih dari satu abad. [59] [60] Setelah permintaannya, biarawan yang sudah ditahbiskan dikirim dari Burma ke Sri Lanka untuk membangun kembali Buddhisme, yang telah hampir menghilang dari negara itu pada masa pemerintahan Chola. [61] Selama periode abad pertengahan, Sri Lanka dibagi menjadi tiga sub-wilayah, yaitu Ruhunu , Pihiti dan Maya . [62]

Sri Lanka sistem irigasi secara ekstensif diperluas pada masa pemerintahan Parākramabāhu Agung (AD 1.153-1.186). [63] Periode ini dianggap sebagai saat Sri Lanka berada di puncak kekuasaan. [64] [65] Dia membangun 1.470 waduk - jumlah tertinggi oleh penguasa dalam sejarah, diperbaiki 165 bendungan, 3910 kanal, waduk utama 163, dan 2.376 waduk mini. [66] konstruksi yang paling terkenal adalah Parakrama Samudra , [67] yang terbesar irigasi proyek Abad Pertengahan Sri Lanka. Pemerintahan Parākramabāhu adalah mengesankan untuk dua kampanye utama - di selatan India sebagai bagian dari perang Pandyan suksesi, dan serangan hukuman terhadap raja-raja Ramanna ( Myanmar ) untuk penghinaan yang dirasakan berbagai Sri Lanka. [68]

Setelah kematiannya, Sri Lanka secara bertahap membusuk dalam kekuasaan. Dalam AD 1215, Kalinga Magha , seorang India Selatan dengan asal-usul pasti, diidentifikasi sebagai pendiri kerajaan Jaffna, menyerbu dan merebut Kerajaan Polonnaruwa dengan tentara yang kuat 24.000 berlayar 690 mil laut pada 100 kapal besar dari Kalinga . [66] Berbeda penjajah sebelumnya, ia dijarah , dirusak, dan menghancurkan segala sesuatu di Anuradhapura kuno dan Polonnaruwa Kingdoms luar pemulihan. [69] prioritas-Nya dalam putusan adalah untuk mengambil sebanyak mungkin dari tanah dan membatalkan karena banyak tradisi Rajarata mungkin . Pemerintahannya melihat migrasi besar-besaran penduduk asli orang Sinhala di selatan dan barat dari Sri Lanka, dan ke wilayah pegunungan, dalam upaya untuk melarikan diri kekuasaannya. Sri Lanka tidak pernah benar-benar pulih dari dampak invasi Kalinga Magha itu. Raja Vijayabâhu III, yang memimpin perlawanan, membawa kerajaan ke Dambadeniya . Bagian utara, sementara itu, akhirnya berkembang menjadi kerajaan Jaffna . [70] [71] Kerajaan Jaffna tidak pernah berada di bawah kekuasaan setiap kerajaan selatan kecuali pada satu kesempatan, pada tahun 1450, setelah penaklukan yang dipimpin oleh raja Parâkramabâhu VI 's anak angkat, Pangeran Sapumal . [72] Ia memerintah Utara dari AD 1450-1467. [73] Tiga abad kemudian menyatakan dari 1.215 ditandai oleh pergeseran kaleidoscopically koleksi kerajaan di selatan dan tengah Sri Lanka, termasuk Dambadeniya, Yapahuwa , Gampola , Raigama , Kotte , [74] Sitawaka , dan akhirnya, Kandy .

Kolonisasi

Sebuah lukisan abad ke-17 Belanda explorer Joris van Spilbergen pertemuan dengan Raja Vimaladharmasuriya pada tahun 1602.

Periode modern awal Sri Lanka dimulai dengan kedatangan Portugis tentara dan penjelajah Lorenzo de Almeida , putra Francisco de Almeida , pada tahun 1505. [75] The Portugis mendirikan sebuah benteng di kota pelabuhan Colombo pada tahun 1517 dan secara bertahap diperpanjang mereka kontrol atas wilayah pesisir. Pada tahun 1592 Vimaladharmasuriya saya pindah kerajaan ke kota pedalaman Kandy , lokasi yang lebih aman terhadap serangan dari penjajah Barat. [76] perang terputus terus berlanjut sampai abad ke-16. Pada 1619, karena serangan Portugis, keberadaan independen Jaffna kerajaan berakhir. [77]

Perisai bentuk dengan pusat gajah dan empat pohon-pohon palem di setiap sisi
Kolonial Lambang Inggris Ceylon

Selama masa pemerintahan II Rajasinghe , Belanda penjelajah tiba di pulau. Pada 1638, raja menandatangani perjanjian dengan Perusahaan India Timur Belanda menyingkirkan Portugis yang memerintah sebagian besar wilayah pesisir. [78] Berikut Belanda-Portugis Perang menghasilkan kemenangan Belanda, dengan Colombo jatuh ke tangan Belanda dengan 1656. Orang Belanda tetap di wilayah mereka ditangkap, melanggar perjanjian. Sebuah kelompok etnis bernama Burgher orang diintegrasikan ke dalam masyarakat Sri Lanka sebagai akibat dari pemerintahan Belanda . [79] Kerajaan Kandy adalah independen terakhir monarki dari Sri Lanka. [80] Pada tahun 1595, Vimaladharmasurya membawa suci Relic Gigi - tradisional simbol kerajaan dan otoritas keagamaan di antara Sinhala - ke Kandy, dan membangun Kuil Tooth . [80] Bahkan dengan perang intermiten dengan Eropa, kerajaan itu mampu bertahan. Krisis suksesi muncul di Kandy, setelah Raja Vira Narendrasinha kematian 's pada 1739. Ia menikah dengan seorang Telugu berbahasa Nayakkar putri dari India Selatan dan punya anak dengan dia. [80] Akhirnya, dengan dukungan dari bhikku Weliwita Sarankara, mahkota diteruskan ke saudara dari salah satu putri Narendrasinha, yang menghadap ke kanan "Unambuwe Bandara ", anaknya sendiri Narendrasinha oleh seorang Sinhala selir . [81] Raja baru dinobatkan Sri Vijaya Rajasinha akhir tahun itu. Raja Nayakkar dinasti, melancarkan beberapa serangan di daerah yang dikuasai Belanda, yang terbukti tidak berhasil. [82]

Selama Perang Napoleon , takut bahwa Perancis kontrol Belanda mungkin akan mengirim Sri Lanka ke, Perancis Britania Raya menduduki daerah pesisir pulau (yang mereka disebut Ceylon) dengan sedikit kesulitan pada tahun 1796. [83] Dua tahun kemudian, pada tahun 1798 , Rajadhi Rajasinha , 3 dari empat raja Nayakkar Sri Lanka meninggal karena demam. Setelah kematian, keponakan Rajadhi Rajasinha, 18 tahun Konnasami dinobatkan. [84] The raja baru, Sri Vikrama Rajasinha menghadapi Inggris invasi pada tahun 1803, tetapi mampu membalas dengan sukses. Pada saat itu, wilayah pesisir seluruh berada di bawah British East India Company , sebagai akibat dari Perjanjian Amiens . Namun pada tanggal 14 Februari 1815, Kandy diduduki oleh Inggris, dalam Perang Kandyan kedua , akhirnya berakhir kemerdekaan Sri Lanka. [84] Sri Vikrama Rajasinha, raja asli terakhir dari Sri Lanka diasingkan ke India. [85] The Konvensi Kandyan secara resmi menyerahkan seluruh negeri untuk Kerajaan Inggris. Upaya bangsawan Sri Lanka untuk melemahkan kekuasaan Inggris tahun 1818 selama Pemberontakan Uva digagalkan oleh Gubernur Robert Brownrigg . [86]

Perkebunan teh diperkenalkan ke Sri Lanka oleh James Taylor , seorang pengusaha Inggris pada tahun 1867.

Awal periode modern Sri Lanka ditandai oleh Colebrooke-Cameron reformasi of 1833. [87] Mereka memperkenalkan utilitarian dan liberal budaya politik ke negara didasarkan pada aturan hukum dan digabung provinsi Kandyan dan maritim sebagai satu unit pemerintah. [87] Sebuah Dewan Eksekutif dan Dewan Legislatif didirikan, kemudian menjadi fondasi legislatif perwakilan di negara ini. Pada saat ini, eksperimen dengan kopi perkebunan yang sebagian besar berhasil. Segera itu tumbuh menjadi komoditas ekspor utama negara itu. Harga kopi jatuh sebagai akibat dari depresi tahun 1847 pembangunan ekonomi terhenti dan diminta gubernur untuk memperkenalkan serangkaian pajak atas senjata api, anjing, toko, kapal, dll, dan memperkenalkan bentuk rajakariya, membutuhkan enam hari kerja bebas pada jalan atau pembayaran setara kas. [88] Langkah-langkah keras antagonized penduduk setempat, dan pemberontakan lain terjadi pada tahun 1848. [89] Sebuah penyakit daun yang merusak, Hemileia vastatrix , melanda perkebunan kopi pada tahun 1869, menghancurkan seluruh industri dalam waktu 15 tahun. [90] The British cepat menemukan pengganti, meninggalkan kopi, mereka mulai mengolah hasil perkebunan teh di gantinya. Teh produksi di Sri Lanka berkembang dalam beberapa dekade ke depan. Perkebunan karet skala besar dimulai pada awal abad 20.

Pada akhir abad ke-19, baru berpendidikan kelas sosial melampaui ras dan kasta muncul melalui upaya Inggris untuk staf Ceylon Sipil Layanan dan profesi hukum, pendidikan, dan kesehatan. [91] Pemimpin baru mewakili berbagai kelompok etnis penduduk di Dewan Legislatif Ceylon secara komunal. Buddha dan Hindu revivalisme bereaksi terhadap misionaris Kristen kegiatan. [92] [93] Dua dekade pertama di abad ke-20 yang dicatat oleh harmoni unik di antara kepemimpinan Sinhala dan Tamil politik, yang sejak itu telah hilang. [94] Pada tahun 1919, utama Sinhala dan Tamil organisasi politik bersatu untuk membentuk Ceylon Kongres Nasional, di bawah kepemimpinan Ponnambalam Arunachalam , [95] menekan penguasa kolonial untuk reformasi konstitusional yang lebih. Tapi tanpa dukungan rakyat yang besar, dan dengan dorongan gubernur untuk "representasi komunal" dengan menciptakan sebuah "kursi Colombo" yang menjuntai antara Sinhala dan Tamil, Kongres kehilangan momentum menuju pertengahan tahun 1920. [96] The reformasi Donoughmore tahun 1931 menolak komunal representasi dan memperkenalkan waralaba universal orang dewasa (waralaba mencapai 4% sebelum reformasi). Langkah ini dikecam keras oleh pimpinan politik Tamil, yang menyadari bahwa mereka akan dikurangi menjadi minoritas dalam baru dibuat Dewan Negara Ceylon , yang berhasil dewan legislatif. [97] [98] Pada tahun 1937, pemimpin Tamil GG Ponnambalam menuntut representasi 50-50 (50% untuk Sinhala dan 50% untuk kelompok etnis lainnya) dalam Dewan Negara. Namun, permintaan ini tidak dipenuhi oleh reformasi Soulbury tahun 1944/45.

Kemerdekaan

Konstitusi Soulbury diantar dalam statusnya Dominion , dengan kemerdekaan diproklamirkan pada 4 Februari 1948. [99] DS Senanayake menjadi yang pertama Perdana Menteri Ceylon . [100] Tokoh Tamil pemimpin seperti Ponnambalam dan Arunachalam Mahadeva bergabung kabinetnya. [97] [101] The British Royal Navy tetap ditempatkan di Trincomalee sampai 1956. Sebuah demonstrasi negeri rakyat terhadap penarikan jatah beras, yang dikenal sebagai Hartal 1.953 , mengakibatkan pengunduran diri perdana menteri Dudley Senanayake . [102] SWRD Bandaranaike terpilih sebagai perdana menteri pada tahun 1956. Tiga tahun pemerintahannya memiliki dampak yang mendalam, melalui memproklamirkan diri peran "pembela budaya Sinhala dikepung". [103] Dia memperkenalkan kontroversial UU Sinhala Hanya , mengakui Sinhala sebagai bahasa resmi hanya dari pemerintah. Meskipun sebagian terbalik pada tahun 1958, tagihan menimbulkan keprihatinan bagi masyarakat Tamil, yang dirasakan di dalamnya ancaman terhadap bahasa dan budaya mereka. [104] [105] [106] The Party federal (FP) meluncurkan gerakan non- kekerasan resistensi ( satyagraha ) terhadap RUU, yang mendorong Bandaranaike untuk mencapai kesepakatan ( Bandaranaike-Chelvanayakam Pakta ) dengan SJV Chelvanayakam , pemimpin FP, untuk menyelesaikan konflik etnis menjulang. [107] Namun pakta tersebut terbukti tidak efektif dalam menghadapi berlangsung protes oleh oposisi dan para ulama Budha. RUU, bersama-sama dengan pemerintah berbagai skema kolonisasi , menyumbang banyak terhadap dendam politik antara Sinhala dan Tamil pemimpin politik. [108] Bandaranaike yang dibunuh oleh ekstrimis biksu Budha pada tahun 1959. [109]

Upacara resmi menandai dimulainya pemerintahan sendiri, dengan pembukaan parlemen pertama di Independence Square .

Sirimavo Bandaranaike , janda Bandaranaike SWRD akhir, menjabat sebagai perdana menteri pada tahun 1960, dan bertahan dengan usaha kudeta d'état pada tahun 1962. Selama jangka kedua sebagai perdana menteri, pemerintah menerapkan kebijakan ekonomi sosialis, memperkuat hubungan dengan Uni Soviet dan Cina , sementara mempromosikan kebijakan non-alignment. Pada tahun 1971, Ceylon mengalami pemberontakan Marxis , yang dengan cepat ditekan. Pada tahun 1972, negara ini menjadi republik bernama Sri Lanka, menyangkal status dominion nya. Minoritas berkepanjangan keluhan dan penggunaan emosionalisme komunal sebagai senjata kampanye pemilu oleh kedua Sinhala dan Tamil pemimpin bersekongkol dengan militansi Tamil pemula di utara, pada 1970-an. [110] The kebijakan standardisasi oleh pemerintah Sirimavo untuk memperbaiki kesenjangan dibuat di universitas pendaftaran, yang pada dasarnya merupakan tindakan afirmatif untuk membantu siswa secara geografis kurang beruntung untuk mendapatkan pendidikan tinggi, [111] menghasilkan mengurangi proporsi siswa Tamil di tingkat universitas dan bertindak sebagai katalis langsung bagi kebangkitan militansi. [112] [113 ] Pembunuhan Jaffna Walikota Alfred Duraiyappah pada tahun 1975 menandai titik krisis. [114] [115]

Hitam Juli , 1983. Perusuh dari bagian Sinhala membakar rumah Tamil dan bisnis.

Pemerintah JR Jayawardene meraih kekuasaan pada tahun 1977, mengalahkan sebagian besar tidak populer United Front pemerintah. [116] Jayawardene memperkenalkan konstitusi baru , bersama-sama dengan ekonomi pasar bebas dan kuat presiden eksekutif disusun oleh Perancis. Hal itu membuat Sri Lanka pertama Asia Selatan negara untuk meliberalisasi ekonominya. [117] Dari tahun 1983, ketegangan etnis yang diwujudkan dalam on-dan-off pemberontakan terhadap pemerintah oleh Macan Pembebasan Tamil Eelam (LTTE). Menyusul kerusuhan pada bulan Juli 1983, lebih dari 150.000 warga sipil Tamil melarikan diri pulau itu, mencari suaka di negara lain. [118] penyimpangan dalam kebijakan luar negeri mengakibatkan tetangga India memperkuat Macan dengan menyediakan senjata dan pelatihan. [119] [120] [121 ] Pada tahun 1987, Indo-Sri Lanka Accord ditandatangani dan Perdamaian Angkatan India Menjaga (IPKF) ditempatkan di bagian utara Sri Lanka untuk menstabilkan wilayah tersebut dengan menetralkan LTTE. [122] Pada tahun yang sama, JVP meluncurkan pemberontakan kedua di Southern Sri Lanka, [123] pemindahan mengharuskan dari IPKF pada tahun 1990. [124] Pada tahun 2002, pemerintah Sri Lanka dan LTTE menandatangani perjanjian gencatan senjata yang ditengahi Norwegia. [106]

1.998 Kuil serangan gigi . Macan Tamil bom kuil Buddha suci yang mengakibatkan 17 kematian.

The tsunami Asia tahun 2004 menewaskan lebih dari 35.000 di Sri Lanka. [125] Dari tahun 1985 hingga 2006, pemerintah Sri Lanka dan pemberontak Tamil mengadakan empat putaran pembicaraan damai tanpa keberhasilan. Kedua LTTE dan pemerintah kembali pertempuran pada tahun 2006, dan pemerintah secara resmi mundur dari gencatan senjata pada tahun 2008. [106] Pada tahun 2009, di bawah Kepresidenan dari Mahinda Rajapaksa pada Sri Lanka Angkatan Bersenjata mengalahkan LTTE, dan didirikan kembali kendali seluruh negeri oleh pemerintah Sri Lanka. [126] [127] Secara keseluruhan, antara 60.000 dan 100.000 orang tewas selama 26 tahun konflik. [128] [129]

40.000 Tamil warga sipil mungkin telah tewas dalam tahap akhir dari Sri Lanka perang sipil , menurut sebuah Panel Pakar yang diselenggarakan oleh Sekretaris Jenderal PBB Ban Ki-moon . The exact number of Tamils killed is still a speculation that needs further study. [ 130 ] Following the LTTE's defeat, the Tamil National Alliance , the largest political party in Sri Lanka, dropped its demand for a separate state in favour of a federal solution. [ 131 ] [ 132 ] The final stages of the war left some 294,000 people displaced. [ 133 ] [ 134 ] According to the Ministry of Resettlement, most of the displaced persons had been released or returned to their places of origin, leaving only 6,651 in the camps as of December 2011. [ 135 ] In May 2010, President Rajapaksa appointed the Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC) to assess the conflict between the time of the ceasefire agreement in 2002 and the defeat of the LTTE in 2009. [ 136 ] [ 137 ] Sri Lanka has emerged from its 26-year war to become one of the fastest growing economies of the world. [ 138 ] [ 139 ]

Geografi

A roughly oval island with a mountainous center
Topographic map of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka lies on the Indian tectonic plate , a minor plate within the Indo-Australian Plate . [ 140 ] It is in the Indian Ocean southwest of the Bay of Bengal , between latitudes and 10°N , and longitudes 79° and 82°E . [ 141 ] Sri Lanka is separated from the Indian subcontinent by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait . According to the Hindu mythology , a land bridge existed between the Indian mainland and Sri Lanka. It now amounts to only a chain of limestone shoals remaining above sea level . [ 142 ] It was reportedly passable on foot up to 1480 AD, until cyclones deepened the channel. [ 143 ] [ 144 ]

A view of Sripada from Maskeliya

The island consists mostly of flat-to-rolling coastal plains, with mountains rising only in the south-central part. The highest point Pidurutalagala , reaching 2,524 metres (8,281 ft) above sea level. The climate is tropical and warm, due to the moderating effects of ocean winds. Mean temperature ranges from 17 °C (62.6 °F) in the central highlands , where frost may occur for several days in the winter, to a maximum of 33 °C (91.4 °F) in other low-altitude areas. Average yearly temperature ranges from 28 °C (82.4 °F) to nearly 31 °C (87.8 °F) . Day and night temperatures may vary by 14 °C (57.2 °F) to 18 °C (64.4 °F) . [ 145 ]

Sri Lanka seen from space

Rainfall pattern is influenced by monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal. The "wet zone" and some of the windward slopes of the central highlands receive up to 2,500 millimetres (98.4 in) of rain each month, but the leeward slopes in the east and northeast receive little rain. Most of the east, southeast, and northern parts of the country comprise the "dry zone", which receives between 1,200 mm (47 in) and 1,900 mm (75 in) of rain annually. [ 146 ] The arid northwest and southeast coasts receive the least amount of rain at 800 mm (31 in) to 1,200 mm (47 in) per year. Periodic squalls occur and sometimes tropical cyclones bring overcast skies and rains to the southwest, northeast, and eastern parts of the island. Humidity is typically higher in the southwest and mountainous areas and depends on the seasonal patterns of rainfall. [ 147 ]

The longest of the 103 rivers in the country is Mahaweli River , covering 335 kilometres (208 mi). [ 148 ] These waterways give rise to 51 natural waterfalls of 10 meters or more. The highest is Bambarakanda Falls , with a height of 263 metres (863 ft). [ 149 ] Sri Lanka's coastline is 1,585 km long. [ 150 ] It claims an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) extending 200 nautical miles , approximately 6.7 times the country's land area. The coastline and adjacent waters support highly productive marine ecosystems such as fringing coral reefs , shallow beds of coastal and estuarine seagrasses . [ 151 ] Sri Lanka inherits 45 estuaries and 40 lagoons too. [ 150 ] Country's mangrove ecosystem which spans over 7,000 hectares , played a vital role in buffering the force in the waves of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami . [ 152 ] The island is rich with minerals such as Ilmenite , Feldspar , Graphite , Silica , Kaolin , Mica and Thorium . [ 153 ] [ 154 ] Existence of Petroleum in the Gulf of Mannar has also been confirmed and extraction attempts are underway. [ 155 ]

Flora dan fauna

The Sri Lankan Elephant is one of three recognised subspecies of the Asian Elephant , and the 2011 elephant census estimated a poulation of 5879. [ 156 ]

Lying within the Indomalaya ecozone , Sri Lanka is one of 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. [ 157 ] Although the country is relatively small in size, it has the highest biodiversity density in Asia. [ 158 ] Remarkably high proportion of the species among its flora and fauna, 27% of the 3,210 flowering plants and 22% of the mammals ( see List ), are endemic . [ 159 ] Sri Lanka has declared 24 wildlife reserves, which are home to a wide range of native species such as Asian elephants , leopards , sloth bears , the unique small loris, a variety of deer, the purple-faced langur , the endangered wild boar , porcupines and anteaters . [ 160 ]

Flowering acacias flourish on the arid Jaffna Peninsula . Among the trees of the dry-land forests are valuable species such as satinwood , ebony , ironwood , mahogany and teak . The wet zone is a tropical evergreen forest with tall trees, broad foliage, and a dense undergrowth of vines and creepers. Subtropical evergreen forests resembling those of temperate climates flourish in the higher altitudes. [ 161 ]

The Sri Lankan Leopard ( Panthera pardus kotiya ) is an endangered subspecies of leopard native to Sri Lanka.

The Yala National Park in the southeast protects herds of elephant, deer , and peacocks . The Wilpattu National Park , the largest, in the northwest preserves the habitats of many water birds, such as storks , pelicans , ibis , and spoonbills . The island has four biosphere reserves : Bundala , Hurulu Forest Reserve , the Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya , and Sinharaja . [ 162 ] Out of these, Sinharaja forest reserve is home to 26 endemic birds and 20 rainforest species, including the elusive Red-faced Malkoha , Green-billed Coucal and Sri Lanka Blue Magpie . The untapped genetic potential of Sinharaja flora is enormous. Of the 211 woody trees and lianas within the reserve, 139 (66%) are endemic. The Total vegetation density, including trees, shrubs, herbs and seedlings, has been estimated at 240,000 individuals per hectare .

Sri Lanka is home to over 250 types of resident birds ( see List ). It has declared several bird sanctuaries including Kumana. [ 163 ] During the Mahaweli Program of the 1970s and 1980s in northern Sri Lanka, the government set aside four areas of land totalling 1,900 km 2 (730 sq mi) as national parks. However the country's forest cover, which was around 49% in 1920, had been fallen to approximately 24% by 2009. [ 164 ] [ 165 ]

Politik

The old parliament building of Sri Lanka, near the Galle Face Green , now the Presidential Secretariat .

Sri Lanka is the oldest democracy in South Asia . [ 166 ] The Donoughmore Constitution , drafted by the Donoughmore Commission in 1931 enabled general elections with adult universal suffrage (universal adult franchise) in the country. [ 167 ] It was the first time a non- caucasian country within the empires of Western Europe was given one man, one vote and the power to control domestic affairs. The first election under the universal adult franchise, held in June 1931, was for the Ceylon State Council . [ citation needed ] Sir DB Jayatilaka was elected as the Leader of the House. [ 168 ] In 1944, the Soulbury Commission was appointed to draft a new constitution. During this time, struggle for Independence was fought on "constitutionalist" lines under the leadership of DS Senanayake . [ 169 ] The draft constitution was enacted in the same year and Senanayake was appointed as the Prime Minister from the parliamentary election in 1947 . The Soulbury constitution ushered in Dominion status and Independence to Sri Lanka in 1948. [ 167 ]

Current politics in Sri Lanka is a contest between two rival coalitions led by the centre-leftist and progressivist United People's Freedom Alliance (UPFA), an offspring of Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), and the comparatively right-wing and pro- capitalist United National Party (UNP). [ 170 ] Sri Lanka is essentially a multi-party democracy with many smaller Buddhist, socialist and Tamil nationalist political parties. As of July 2011, the number of registered political parties in the country is 67. [ 171 ] Out of these, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP), established in 1935 is the oldest. [ 172 ] UNP, established by DS Senanayake in 1946, was considered to be the largest single political party until recently. [ 173 ] It is the only political group which had a representation in all parliaments since the independence. [ 173 ] SLFP was founded by SWRD Bandaranaike , who was the Cabinet minister of Local Administration, before he left the UNP in July 1951. [ 174 ] SLFP registered its first victory in 1956, defeating the ruling UNP in 1956 Parliamentary election . [ 174 ] Following the parliamentary election in July 1960 , Sirimavo Bandaranaike became the prime minister and the world's first elected female head of state . [ 175 ]

GG Ponnambalam , the Tamil nationalist counterpart of SWRD Bandaranaike, [ 176 ] founded the All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC) in 1944. As an objection to Ponnambalam's cooperation with DS Senanayake, a dissident group led by SJV Chelvanayakam broke away in 1949 and formed the Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi (ITAK) aka Federal Party. It was the main Tamil political party in Sri Lanka for next 2 decades. [ 177 ] Federal party advocated a more aggressive stance vis-à-vis the Sinhalese. [ 178 ] With the constitutional reforms of 1972, these parties created a common front, the Tamil United Front (later Tamil United Liberation Front ). Tamil National Alliance , formed in October 2001 is the current successor of these Tamil political parties which had undergone much turbulences as Tamil militants' rise to power in late 1970s. [ 178 ] [ 179 ] Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna , a Marxist-Leninist political party, founded by Rohana Wijeweera in 1965, serves as the 3rd force in the current political context. [ 180 ] It endorses radical leftist policies, with respect to the traditionalist leftist politics of LSSP and Communist Party . [ 178 ] Founded in 1981, Sri Lanka Muslim Congress is the largest Muslim political party in Sri Lanka. [ 181 ]

Pemerintah

Sri Lanka National Symbols of Sri Lanka
Bendera Lion Flag
Emblem Gold Lion Passant
Anthem Sri Lanka Matha
Kupu-kupu Troides darsius
Burung Sri Lanka Junglefowl
Bunga Red and Blue Water Lily
Tree Ceylon Ironwood (Nā)
Olahraga Bola voli
Source: [ 182 ] [ 183 ]
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka, Colombo

Sri Lanka is a democratic republic and a unitary state which is governed by a semi-presidential system , with a mixture of a presidential system and a parliamentary system . [ 184 ] It constitutes a parliamentary system governed under the constitution. Most provisions of the constitution can be amended by a two-thirds majority in parliament . However, the amendment of certain basic features such as the clauses on language, religion, and reference to Sri Lanka as a unitary state require both a two-thirds majority and approval at a nation-wide referendum .

The Sri Lankan government has 3 branches:

Pembagian administratif

For administrative purposes, Sri Lanka is divided into 9 provinces [ 194 ] and 25 districts . [ 195 ]

Provinsi

Provinces ( Sinhala : පළාත Tamil : மாகாணம் ) have existed in Sri Lanka since the 19th century. But they didn't have any legal status until 1987 when the 13th Amendment to the 1978 Constitution of Sri Lanka established provincial councils following several decades of increasing demand for a decentralisation of the Government of Sri Lanka . [ 196 ] The provincial council is an autonomous body and is not under any Ministry. It undertakes activities which had earlier been undertaken by the Central Government Ministries, Departments, Corporations and Statutory Authorities. [ 196 ] But importantly, land and police authorities are not given to provincial councils in practice. [ 197 ] [ 198 ] Between 1988 and 2006, the Northern and Eastern provinces were temporarily merged to form the North-East Province . [ 199 ] [ 200 ] Prior to 1987, all administrative tasks were handled by a district-based civil service which had been in place since colonial times . Now each province is administered by a directly elected provincial council:

Administrative Divisions of Sri Lanka
Propinsi Modal Area (km²) Daerah
(sq mi)
Populasi
Pusat Kandy 5,674 2,191 2,556,774
Timur Trincomalee 9,996 3,859 1,547,377
North Central Anuradhapura 10,714 4,137 1,259,421
Utara Jaffna 8,884 3,430 1,060,023
North Western Kurunegala 7,812 3,016 2,372,185
Sabaragamuwa Ratnapura 4,902 1,893 1,919,478
Southern Galle 5,559 2,146 2,465,626
Uva Badulla 8,488 3,277 1,259,419
Barat Kolombo 3,709 1,432 5,837,294
Districts and local authorities

Sri Lanka is also divided into district is administered under a District Secretariat . The districts are further subdivided into 256 divisional secretariats , and these in turn, to approximately 14,008 Grama Niladhari divisions. [ 202 ] The Districts are known in Sinhala as Disa and in Tamil as Māwaddam . Originally a Disa (usually rendered into English as Dissavony) was a duchy , notably Matale and Uva. The Government Agent , who is known as District Secretary , administers a district.

There are 3 other types of local authorities: Municipal Councils (18), Urban councils (13) and Pradeshiya Sabha ( aka Pradesha Sabhai, 256). [ 203 ] Local authorities were originally based on the feudal counties named korale and rata , and were formerly known as 'DRO divisions' after the 'Divisional Revenue Officer'. [ 204 ] Later the DROs became 'Assistant Government Agents' and the divisions were known as 'AGA divisions'. These Divisional Secretariats are currently administered by a 'Divisional Secretary'.

Hubungan luar negeri dan militer

Sri Lanka is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). It has cultivated relations with India while avoiding sacrificing independence. [ 206 ] It became a member of the United Nations in 1955. Sri Lanka is also a member of the Commonwealth , the SAARC , World Bank , International Monetary Fund , Asian Development Bank and the Colombo Plan .

One of the two parties that have governed Sri Lanka since its independence, UNP , traditionally favours links with the West, while its left-leaning counterpart, SLFP favours links to the East. [ 206 ] Sri Lankan Finance Minister JR Jayewardene, together with the then Australian Foreign Minister Sir Percy Spencer, proposed the Colombo Plan at Commonwealth Foreign Minister's Conference held in Colombo in 1950. [ 207 ] Sri Lanka argued for a free Japan , while many countries were reluctant, at the San Francisco Peace Conference in 1951, and refused to accept Japanese payment of reparations for that World War II damage because it would harm Japan's economy. [ 208 ] Sri Lanka-China relations started as soon as the PRC was formed in 1949. Two countries signed an important Rice-Rubber Pact in 1952. [ 209 ] Sri Lanka played a vital role in Asian–African Conference in 1955, which was an important step toward the crystallisation of the NAM. [ 210 ] The Bandaranaike government of 1956 significantly changed the pro-western policies set by the previous UNP government. It recognised the new Cuba under Fidel Castro in 1959. Shortly after, Cuba's revolutionary Ernesto Che Guevara paid a visit to Sri Lanka. [ 211 ] The Sirima - Shastri Pact of 1964 [ 212 ] and Sirima- Gandhi Pact of 1974 [ 213 ] were signed between Sri Lankan and Indian leaders in an attempt to solve the long standing dispute over the status of plantation workers of Indian origin . In 1974, Kachchatheevu , a small island in Palk Strait was formally ceded to Sri Lanka. [ 214 ] By this time, Sri Lanka was strongly involved in the NAM and Colombo held the fifth NAM summit of 1976. [ 215 ] The relationship between Sri Lanka and India became tensed under the government of JR Jayawardene . [ 124 ] [ 216 ] As a result, India intervened in Sri Lankan Civil War and subsequently deployed the Indian Peace Keeping Force in 1987. [ 217 ] In the present, Sri Lanka enjoys extensive relations with China, [ 218 ] Russia [ 219 ] and Pakistan . [ 220 ]

The Sri Lanka Armed Forces , comprising the Sri Lanka Army , the Sri Lanka Navy and the Sri Lanka Air Force , comes under the purview of the Ministry of Defence (MoD). [ 221 ] The total strength of the three services is around 259,000 personnel, with nearly 36,000 reserves. [ 222 ] Sri Lanka has not enforced military conscription . [ 223 ] Paramilitary units include the Special Task Force , the Civil Security Force and the Sri Lanka Coast Guard [ 224 ] [ 225 ]

Since independence in 1948, the primary focus of the armed forces has been internal security, crushing three major insurgencies, two by Marxist militants of the JVP and a 30-year long conflict with the LTTE which has been proscribed as a terrorist organisation by 32 countries . The armed forces has thereby expanded to its current size and are in a continuous mobilised state for the last 30 years. [ 226 ] Marking a rare occurrence in modern military history, Sri Lankan military was able to bring a decisive end to the Sri Lankan Civil War in May 2009. [ 227 ] Sri Lanka claimed itself the first country in the modern world to eradicate terrorism on its own soil. [ 228 ] Sri Lankan Armed Forces have engaged in United Nations peacekeeping operations since the early 1960s. It has contributed with forces as permanent contingents deployed in several UN peacekeeping missions in Chad , Lebanon and Haiti . [ 229 ]

Ekonomi

Graphical depiction of Sri Lanka's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories.

According to the International Monetary Fund, Sri Lanka has a yearly gross domestic output of US$59 billion as of 2010. [ 5 ] It has a GDP of US$116 billion in terms of purchasing power parity . Sri Lanka is next only to Maldives in the South Asian region in terms of per capita income , with a nominal value of US$2,877 and PPP value of US$5,673. [ 5 ] It recorded a GDP growth of 8.3% in 2011. [ 230 ]

The Colombo World Trade Center in Colombo. Presidential Secretariat , Bank of Ceylon and Galadhari Hotel are also visible in the image.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, Sri Lanka became a plantation economy , famous for its production and export of cinnamon , rubber and Ceylon tea , which remains a trademark national export. [ 231 ] The development of modern ports under British rule raised the strategic importance of the island as a centre of trade. [ 232 ] From 1948 to 1977 socialism strongly influenced the government's economic policies. Colonial plantations were dismantled, industries were nationalised and a welfare state established. In 1977 the Free market economy was introduced to the country, incorporating privatisation , deregulation and the promotion of private enterprise . [ 117 ]

While the production and export of tea, rubber, coffee, sugar and other commodities remain important, industrialisation has increased the importance of food processing , textiles , telecommunications and finance . Main economic sectors of the country are tourism , tea export , clothing , rice production and other agricultural products. In addition to these economic sectors, overseas employment contributes highly in foreign exchange, most of them from the Middle East . [ 233 ] As of 2010, the service sector makes up 60% of GDP, the industrial sector 28% and the agriculture sector 12%. [ 233 ] The private sector accounts for 85% of the economy. [ 234 ] India is the largest trading partner of Sri Lanka. [ 235 ] Economic disparies exist between the provinces, with Western province contributing to 45.1% of the GDP, Southern province and Central province , 10.7% and 10% respectively. [ 236 ] With the end of the war, Northern province reported a record 22.9% GDP growth in 2010. [ 237 ]

Sri Lanka's most widely known export, Ceylon tea , which is considered the "cleanest" tea in the world. Sri Lanka is also the world's 2nd largest exporter of tea. [ 238 ]

The per capita income of Sri Lanka has doubled since 2005. [ 239 ] During the same period, poverty has dropped from 15.2% to 7.6%, unemployment has dropped from 7.2% to 4.9%, market capitalisation of CSE has quadrupled and budget deficit has doubled. [ 233 ] 90% of the households in Sri Lanka are electrified, 87.3% of the population have access to safe drinking water and 39% have access to pipe-borne water. [ 233 ] Income inequality has also dropped in recent years, indicated by a gini coefficient of 0.36 in 2010. [ 6 ] Sri Lanka's cellular subscriber base has shown a staggering 550% growth, from 2005 to 2010. [ 233 ] Sri Lanka was the first country in the South Asian region to introduce 3G (Third Generation), 3.5G HSDPA , 3.75G HSUPA and 4G LTE mobile broadband Internet technologies. [ 240 ]

The Global Competitiveness Report published by the World Economic Forum has listed Sri Lanka as a transitive economy, from factor-driven stage to efficiency-driven stage, ranking 52nd in the global competitiveness. [ 241 ] It also ranked 45th in health and primary education, 32nd in business sophistication, 42nd in innovation and 41st in goods market efficiency out of the 142 countries surveyed. Sri Lanka ranks 8th in the World Giving Index , registering high levels of contentment and charitable behaviour in its society. [ 242 ] In 2010, The New York Times placed Sri Lanka at number 1 position in 31 places to visit. [ 243 ] Dow Jones classified Sri Lanka as an emerging market in 2010, and Citigroup classified it as a 3G country in February 2011. [ 244 ] Sri Lanka ranks well above other South Asian countries in Human Development Index (HDI) with 0.696 points. [ 245 ]

Although poverty has reduced by 50% during last 5 years, malnutrition remains a problem among children. 29% of the children under 5 years of age are reported to be underweight. [ 246 ] Nearly 58% of infants between 6 and 11 months and 38% of children between 12 and 23 months are anaemic . While Dengue remains the major infectious disease, [ 247 ] non-communicable diseasees (NCDs) account for 85% of ill health, disability and early death in Sri Lanka. [ 248 ] Sri Lankans have a life expectancy of 77.9 years at birth, which is 10% higher than the world average. [ 233 ] Infant mortality rate stands at 8.5 per 1000 births and maternal mortality rate at 0.39 per 1000 births, which is in par with figures of the developed countries. The universal, "pro-poor" [ 249 ] health care system adopted by the country has contributed much towards these figures. [ 250 ]

Sri Lanka's road network consists of 35 A grade highways and 1 Controlled-access highway ( E01 ). [ 251 ] The railway network , operated by the state-run national railway operator, Sri Lanka Railways , spans 1,447 kilometres (900 mi). [ 252 ] Sri Lanka also has three deep-water ports , at Colombo , Galle , and Trincomalee , in addition to the newest port being built at Hambantota . The Trincomalee port is the fifth largest natural harbour in the world. During world war 2 the British stated they could place their entire navy in Trincomalee with room to spare. Its flag carrier airline is the SriLankan Airlines . Fitch Ratings has affirmed Sri Lanka's Foreign- and Local-Currency Issuer Default Ratings (IDRs) at 'BB-' with a "stable" outlook. [ citation needed ] . With a grant of 20 million dollars from the US and the help from China a space academy has been set up for the purpose of developing an indigenous space sector to launch satellites of other nations as well as for domestic use. The dual use of launching technology will also serve to develop missile technology. On 26 September 2012 China launched Sri Lanka's first satellite with intentions of more launches in the coming years.

Demografi

Population growth in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is the 53rd most populated nation in the world, with an annual population growth rate of 0.73%. [ 253 ] Sri Lanka has a birth rate of 17.6 births per 1,000 people and a death rate of 6.2 deaths per 1,000 people. [ 233 ] Population density is highest in western Sri Lanka, especially in and around the capital. Sinhalese constitute the largest ethnic group in the country, with 74.88% of the total population. [ 254 ] Sri Lankan Tamils are the second major ethnic group in the island, with a percentage of 11.2. Sri Lankan Moors comprise 9.2%. Tamils of Indian origin were brought into the country as indentured labourers by British colonists to work on estate plantations. Nearly 50% of them were repatriated following independence in 1948, [ 255 ] They are distinguished from the native Tamil population that has resided in Sri Lanka since ancient times. There are also small ethnic groups such as the Burghers (of mixed European descent) and Austronesian peoples from Southeast Asia. Moreover, there is a small population of Vedda people who are believed to be the original indigenous group to inhabit the island. [ 256 ]

Distribution of Languages and Religious groups of Sri Lanka on DS Division and Sector level according to 1981 Census of Population and Housing
Temple of the Tooth is the focal point of Buddhism in Sri Lanka , 16th century.

Sinhalese and Tamil are the two official languages of Sri Lanka. [ 257 ] The Constitution defines English as the link language. English is widely used for education, scientific and commercial purposes. Members of the Burgher community speak variant forms of Portuguese Creole and Dutch with varying proficiency, while members of the Malay community speak a form of Creole Malay that is unique to the island. [ 258 ]

Sri Lanka is also a multi-religious country. 70% are Buddhists , [ 259 ] most of whom follow the Theravada school of Buddhism. [ 260 ] Buddhism was introduced to Sri Lanka in the 2nd century BCE by Venerable Mahinda . [ 260 ] A sapling of the Bodhi Tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment was brought to Sri Lanka during the same time. The Pali Canon ( Thripitakaya ), having previously been preserved as an oral tradition, was first committed to writing in Sri Lanka around 30 BCE. [ 261 ] Sri Lanka has the longest continuous history of Buddhism of any predominately Buddhist nation, [ 260 ] with the Sangha having existed in a largely unbroken lineage since its introduction in the 2nd century BCE. During periods of decline, the Sri Lankan monastic lineage was revived through contact with Thailand and Burma . [ 261 ] Buddhism is given special recognition in the Constitution which requires Sri Lankan to "protect and foster the Buddha Sasana". [ 262 ]

The Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil , Jaffna is one of the most sacred places for Hinduism in Sri Lanka , 10th century.

Hinduism is the second most prevalent religion in Sri Lanka and predates Buddhism. Today, Hinduism is dominant in Northern, Eastern and Central Sri Lanka. [ 263 ]

Islam is the third most dominant religion in the country, having first been brought to the island by Arab traders, over the course of many centuries, starting around the 7th century AD Most Muslims are Sunni who follow the Shafi'i school. [ 264 ] Most followers of Islam in Sri Lanka today are believed to be descendants of these Arab traders and the local women they married.

Sri Lanka religiosity
agama persen
Agama Budha
70.19%
Hinduisme
12.61%
Islam
9.71%
Kekristenan
7.45%
Source: Census of Population and Housing, 2011 [ 265 ]

Christianity was also brought into the country by Western colonists in the early 16th century. [ 266 ] Around 7.4% of the Sri Lankan population are Christians. Out of those, 82% are Roman Catholics , who trace their religious heritage directly to the Portuguese. The rest of the Christians are evenly split between the Anglican Church of Ceylon and other Protestant faiths . [ 267 ] There is also a small population of Zoroastrian immigrants from India ( Parsis ) who settled in Ceylon during the period of British rule. [ 268 ] But the community has steadily dwindled in recent years. [ 269 ] Religion plays a prominent role in the life and culture of Sri Lankans. The Buddhist majority observe Poya Days, once per month according to the Lunar calendar . The Hindus and Muslims also observe their own holidays. Sri Lanka was ranked the 3rd most religious country in the world by a 2008 Gallup poll , with 99% of Sri Lankans saying religion is an important part of their daily life. [ 270 ]

Human rights and media

Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (formerly Radio Ceylon ) is the oldest-running radio station in Asia, [ 271 ] established in 1923 by Edward Harper just three years after broadcasting began in Europe. [ 271 ] The station broadcasts services in Sinhalese, Tamil, English and Hindi . Since the 1980s, a large number of private radio stations have also been introduced. Broadcast television was introduced to the country in 1979 when the Independent Television Network was launched. Initially all Television stations were state controlled, but private television networks began broadcasts in 1992. [ 272 ] As of 2010, 51 newspapers (30 Sinhala, 10 Tamil, 11 English) are published and 34 TV stations and 52 radio stations are in operation. [ 233 ] However in the recent years, freedom of the press in Sri Lanka has been alleged by media freedom groups to be amongst the poorest in democratic countries . [ 273 ] Alleged abuse of a newspaper editor by a senior government minister [ 274 ] achieved international notoriety because of the unsolved murder of the editor's predecessor [ 275 ] who had also been a critic of the government and had presaged his own death in a posthumously published article. [ 276 ]

Officially, the constitution of Sri Lanka guarantees human rights as ratified by the United Nations . However human rights in Sri Lanka have come under criticism by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch , [ 277 ] as well as the United States Department of State . [ 278 ] Both the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) and the government of Sri Lanka are accused of violating human rights . A report by an advisory panel to the UN secretary-general has accused both the LTTE and the Sri Lankan government of alleged war crimes during final stages of the civil war. [ 279 ] [ 280 ]

The UN Human Rights Council has documented over 12,000 named individuals who have undergone disappearance after detention by security forces in Sri Lanka, the second highest figure in the world, since the Working Group came into being in 1980. [ 281 ] The Sri Lankan government has confirmed that 6,445 of these are dead. Allegations of human rights abuses have not ended with the close of the ethnic conflict. [ 282 ]

Culture

Hindu devotees engaging in 'Kavadi' at a Vavuniya temple.

The culture of Sri Lanka dates back over 2500 years. [ 283 ] It is influenced primarily by Buddhism and Hinduism . [ 284 ] According to Islamic folklore, Adam and Eve were offered refuge on the island as solace for their expulsion from the Garden of Eden . [ 285 ] The island is the home to two main traditional cultures: the Sinhalese (centred in the ancient cities of Kandy and Anuradhapura) and the Tamil (centred in the city of Jaffna). In more recent times, the British colonial culture has also influenced the locals. Sri Lanka claims a democratic tradition matched by few other developing countries. [ 285 ]

The first Tamil immigration was probably around the 3rd century BC. [ 284 ] Tamils co-existed with the Sinhalese people since then, and the early mixing rendered the two ethnic groups almost physically indistinct. [ 286 ] Ancient Sri Lanka is marked for its genius in hydraulic engineering and architecture . The rich cultural traditions shared by all Sri Lankan cultures is the basis of the country's long life expectancy, advanced health standards and high literacy rate. [ 285 ]

Food and festivals

Traditional dish of Kiribath with lunumiris

Dishes include rice and curry, pittu , Kiribath , wholemeal Roti , String hoppers , wattalapam (a rich pudding of Malay origin made of coconut milk , jaggery, cashew nuts , eggs, and spices including cinnamon and nutmeg ), kottu , and hoppers . [ 287 ] Jackfruit may sometimes replace rice and curries. Traditionally food is served on a plantain leaf .

Middle Eastern influences and practices are found in traditional Moor dishes, while Dutch and Portuguese influences are found with the island's Burgher community preserving their culture through traditional dishes such as Lamprais (rice cooked in stock and baked in a banana leaf), Breudher (Dutch Christmas cake ), Bolo Fiado (Portuguese-style layer cake), and Gum Billas (Dutch style honey coated sweet treats).

In April, Sri Lankans celebrate the Buddhist and Hindu new year festival. [ 288 ] In addition, Esala Perahera , a symbolic Buddhist festival consisting of dances and richly decorated elephants, is held in Kandy , during the month of August. [ 289 ] Fire-dances, whip-dances, Kandian dances and various other cultural dances are integral parts of the festival. Tamils celebrate Thai Pongal , Maha Shivaratri and Muslims celebrate Hajj , Ramadan in their respective days of the year.

Visual, literary and performing arts

The movie Kadawunu Poronduwa (The broken promise), produced by SM Nayagam of Chitra Kala Movietone, heralded the coming of Sri Lankan cinema in 1947. Ranmuthu Duwa (Island of treasures, 1962) marked the transition cinema from black-and-white to colour. It in the recent years has featured subjects such as family melodrama , social transformation and the years of conflict between the military and the LTTE . [ 290 ] Their cinematic style is similar to the Bollywood movies. In 1979, movie attendance rose to an all-time high, but has been in steady decline since then. [ 291 ] Undoubtedly the most influential and revolutionary filmmaker in the history of Sri Lankan cinema is Lester James Peiris , who has directed a number of movies which led to global acclaim, including Rekava (Line of destiny, 1956), Gamperaliya (The changing village, 1964), Nidhanaya (The treasure, 1970) and Golu Hadawatha (Cold heart, 1968). [ 292 ]

The earliest music in Sri Lanka came from theatrical performances such as Kolam , Sokari and Nadagam . [ 293 ] Traditional music instruments such as Béra , Thammátama , Daŭla and Răbān were performed at these dramas. The first music album, Nurthi , was released through Radio Ceylon , in 1903. Songwriters like Mahagama Sekara and Ananda Samarakoon and musicians such as WD Amaradeva , HR Jothipala and Clarence Wijewardene have contributed much towards the upliftment of Sri Lankan music. [ 294 ] Baila is another popular music genre in the country, originated among Kaffirs or the or Afro-Sinhalese community. [ 295 ]

A Low Country drummer, playing the traditional Yak Béra .

There are three main styles of Sri Lankan classical dance. They are, the Kandyan dances , low country dances and Sabaragamuwa dances. Out of these, the Kandyan style, which flourished under kings of the Kingdom of Kandy , is more prominent. It is a sophisticated form of dance, [ 296 ] that consists of five sub-categories: Ves dance , Naiyandi dance , Udekki dance , Pantheru dance and 18 Vannam . [ 297 ] An elaborate headdress is worn by the male dancers and a drum called Geta Béraya is used to assist the dancer to keep on rhythm. [ 296 ] In addition, four folk drama variants named Sokri , Kolam , Nadagam , Pasu , and several devil dance variants such as Sanni Yakuma and Kohomba Kankariya can be also observed. [ 297 ]

The history of Sri Lankan painting and sculpture can be traced as far back as to the 2nd or 3rd century BC. [ 298 ] The earliest mention about the art of painting on Mahavamsa, is to the drawing of a palace on cloth using cinnabar in the 2nd century BC. The chronicles have description of various paintings in relic-chambers of Buddhist stupas, and in monastic residence.

Theatre moved into the country when a Parsi company from Mumbai introduced Nurti , a blend of European and Indian theatrical conventions to the Colombo audience in 19th century. [ 297 ] The golden age of Sri Lankan drama and theatre began with the staging of Maname , a play written by Ediriweera Sarachchandra in 1956. [ 299 ] It was followed by a series of popular dramas like Sinhabāhu , Pabāvatī , Mahāsāra , Muudu Puththu and Subha saha Yasa .

Sri Lankan literature spans at least two millennia, and is heir to the Aryan literary tradition as embodied in the hymns of the Rigveda . [ 300 ] The Pāli Canon , the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, was written down in Sri Lanka during the Fourth Buddhist council , at the Alulena cave temple, Kegalle , as early as 29 BC. [ 301 ] Ancient chronicles such as Mahāvamsa, which was written in 6th century provide vivid descriptions of Sri Lankan dynasty. According to the German philosopher Wilhelm Geiger , the chronicles are based on Sinhala Atthakatha (commentary), that dates few more centuries back. [ 300 ] The oldest surviving prose work is the Dhampiya-Atuva-Getapadaya , compiled in the 9th century. [ 300 ] The greatest literary feats of medieval Sri Lanka include Sandesha Kāvya (poetic messages) such as Girā Sandeshaya (Parrot message), Hansa Sandeshaya (Swan message) and Salalihini Sandeshaya (Myna message). Poetry including Kavsilumina , Kavya-Sekharaya (diadem of poetry) and proses such as Saddharma-Ratnāvaliya , Amāvatura (Flood of nectar) and Pujāvaliya are also notable works of this period, which is considered to be the golden age of Sri Lankan literature. [ 300 ] The first modern-day novel, Meena , a work of Simon de Silva appeared in 1905, [ 297 ] and was followed by a number of revolutionary literary works. Martin Wickramasinghe , the author of Madol Doova is considered the iconic figure of Sri Lankan literature. [ 302 ]

Pendidikan

Sarachchandra open air theatre of University of Peradeniya , named in memory of Ediriweera Sarachchandra , Sri Lanka's premier playwright.

With a literacy rate of 92.5%, [ 233 ] Sri Lanka has one of the most literate populations amongst developing nations . [ 303 ] Its youth literacy rate stands at 98%, [ 304 ] computer literacy rate at 35%, [ 305 ] and primary school enrolment rate at over 99%. [ 306 ] An education system which dictates 9 years of compulsory schooling for every child is in place. The free education system established in 1945, [ 307 ] is a result of the initiative of CWW Kannangara and A. Ratnayake. [ 305 ] [ 308 ] It is one of the few countries in the world that provide universal free education from primary to tertiary stage. [ 309 ]

Kannangara led the establishment of the Madhya Maha Vidyalayas (Central Schools) in different parts of the country in order to provide education to Sri Lanka's rural children. [ 305 ] In 1942 a special education committee proposed extensive reforms to establish an efficient and quality education system for the people. However in the 1980s changes to this system saw the separation the of administration of schools between the central government and the provincial government. Thus the elite National Schools are controlled directly by the Ministry of Education and the provincial schools by the provincial government. Sri Lanka has approximately 9675 government schools, 817 private schools and Pirivenas . [ 233 ] The number of public universities in Sri Lanka is 15. [ 310 ] However, lack of responsiveness of the education system to labour market requirements, disparities in access to quality education, lack of an effective linkage between secondary and tertiary education remain major challenges for the education sector. [ 311 ] A number of private, degree awarding institutions have emerged in recent times to fill in these gaps. But still, the participation at tertiary level education hovers around 5.1%. [ 312 ] The proposed private university bill has been withdrawn by the Higher Education Ministry after university students' heavy demonstrations and resistance. [ 313 ]

Olahraga

Sri Lankan cricket team practising ahead of a Twenty20 match against Australia at Pallekele Cricket Stadium , August 2011.

While the national sport in Sri Lanka is volleyball , by far the most popular sport in the country is cricket . [ 314 ] Rugby union also enjoys extensive popularity, [ 315 ] as do athletics , football (soccer) and tennis . Sri Lanka's schools and colleges regularly organise sports and athletics teams, competing on provincial and national levels.

The Sri Lanka national cricket team achieved considerable success beginning in the 1990s, rising from underdog status to winning the 1996 Cricket World Cup . [ 316 ] They also became the runners up of the Cricket World Cup in 2007 , [ 317 ] 2011 . [ 318 ] and of the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009 and 2012 . [ 319 ] Former Sri Lankan off-spinner , Muttiah Muralitharan has been rated as the greatest Test match bowler ever by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack . [ 320 ] Sri Lanka has won the Asia Cup in 1986 , [ 321 ] 1997 , [ 322 ] 2004 [ 323 ] and 2008 . [ 324 ] Current world records for highest team score in all three formats of the game are also held by Sri Lanka. [ 325 ] The country co-hosted the Cricket World Cup in 1996 , 2011 and have hosted the 2012 ICC World Twenty20 . They lost to the West Indies by 36 runs.

Sri Lankans have won two medals at Olympic Games, one silver, by Duncan White at 1948 London Olympics for men's 400 metres hurdles [ 326 ] and one silver by Susanthika Jayasinghe at 2000 Sydney Olympics for women's 200 metres . [ 327 ] In 1973, Mohammed Lafir won the World Billiards Championship , highest feat of a Sri Lankan in a Cue sport . [ 328 ] Aquatic sports such as boating, surfing, swimming, kitesurfing [ 329 ] and scuba diving on the coast, the beaches and backwaters attract a large number of Sri Lankans and foreign tourists. There are two styles of martial arts native to Sri Lanka, Cheena di and Angampora . [ 330 ]

Lihat juga

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Bacaan lebih lanjut

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Pranala luar

Pemerintah
Overview and Data
Sejarah
Peta

Coordinates : 7°N 81°E  /  7°N 81°E  / 7; 81